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[16th Century B.C. - 1953]

The 16th Century B.C.
Studies of flow-properties of materials were made in this century. In the middle of the 16th century B.C., the way in which water changes its viscosity with changing temperature would seem to have influenced the construction of a water-clock made by Amenemhet.

William Harvey deduces that the blood must circulate in a closed loop by estimating cardiac output.

Quantitative rheology owes its origin to Robert Hooke who published his law of elasticity "ut tensiosic vis" in anagram form.

The observation of circulation of blood in capillary vessels of the lung by Marcello Malpighi.

Isaac Newton who, in his "Principia" impicit defined "lack of slipperiness" (viscosity) as the constant ratio of force to rate of flow.

Streaming in plant cells was first observed by Corti.

In early accounts of studies of biorheological phenomena, Jean-Leonard-Marie Poiseuille first studied the flow of a non-biological simple fluid, such as water in small glass capillaries, after he made his hemorheological observations of the very complex microcirculation in animals. He made his in vivo studies on the circulation in the capillary vessels, which led to the application of the rheological treatments to the flow of blood. His experimental studies led to what is well known as "Poiseuille Law".

Robin Fahraeus published 70 pages of excellent historical review of blood.

The American Society of Rheology was foiunded by E.C.Bingham and his friends. The name "rheology" was first given to the science of the flow and deformation of matter.

The first international congress on Rheology was held in Scheveningen, Holland. The term "Biorheology", to apply to the rheology of living systems or materials directly derived from living systems, was first proposed by A.L.Copley at the first International Congress on Rheology.

A symposium on Rheological Problems in Biorheology was held at Lund in Sweden and dealt with different feilds of animal, plant and cellular biorheology.

An account of a Symposium on Rheological Problems in Biorheology published as an appendix to the first book specifically devoted to biorheology, edited by A. Frey-Wyssling (N.Holland Publ. Co.).

The 2nd International Congress on Rheology was held in Oxford, England.



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